Glossary of Acronyms

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Many acronyms commonly used at are difficult to interpret for (not just!) newcomers. Here is a partial list of acronyms and their definitions (initial list courtesy of Willis Eschenbach at [WWW] For acronyms not found here, try [WWW] — and please add new ones to our list!



[WWW].aq [WWW]Antarctica
AA [WWW]Aglutinaciones Anticiclónicas , [WWW]Anticyclonic Agglutinations
AABW [WWW]Antarctic Bottom Water
A&G [WWW]Astronomy and Geophysics
AAIW [WWW]Antarctic Intermediate Water
AAM [WWW]Atmospheric Angular Momentum
AAMI [WWW]Atmospheric Angular Momentum Index
AAO [WWW]Antarctic Oscillation, see also SAM
ABARE [WWW]Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics
ABD Age Band Decomposition (tree ring standardisation method)
ABL [WWW]Atmospheric Boundary Layer
AC1 Lag-one [WWW]autocorrelation
AC [WWW]Arctic Council
ACC [WWW]Antarctic Circumpolar Current
ACE [WWW]Accumulated Cyclone Energy
ACE [WWW]Advanced Composition Explorer (Solar Telescope)
ACEX [WWW]Arctic Coring EXpedition 2004
ACF [WWW]AutoCorrelation Function
ACI [WWW]Atmospheric Circulation Index
ACIA [WWW]Arctic Climate Impact Assessment
ACR [WWW]Antarctic Cold Reversal
ACR Atlantic [WWW]Cyclogenesis Region (cyclones)
ACRIM [WWW]Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (Satellite instrument)
[WWW]ACSL [WWW]Altocumulus Standing Lenticular
ADRF Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing
AER [WWW]American Economic Review
AERONET [WWW]AErosol RObotic NETwork
AEW [WWW]African Easterly Waves
AFAICT [WWW]as far as I can tell
AFAIK [WWW]as far as I know
AGCM [WWW]Atmospheric General Circulation Model
AGG Anthropogenic [WWW]Greenhouse Gas
AGGI [WWW]NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index
AGHG Anthropogenic [WWW]Greenhouse Gas
AGU [WWW]American Geophysical Union
AGW Anthropogenic [WWW]Global Warming
AIC [WWW]Akaike Information Criterion
AIDA [WWW]Abstract Interfaces for Data Analysis
AIDJEX [WWW]Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment NSIDC
AIM [WWW]Antarctic Isotope Maxima
AIMP [WWW]Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project
AIP [WWW]American Institute of Physics
AIRF Aerosol Indirect Radiative Forcing
AIRS [WWW]Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder
AIT [WWW]An Inconvenient Truth (TV documentary)
AKA [WWW]also known as
ALEPH Apparatus for [WWW]Large Electron Positron pHysics
AM [WWW]Annular Modes (Hemispheric scale patterns of climate variability)
AMIE [WWW]ARM MJO Investigation Experiment
AMIP [WWW]Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project
AMM Atlantic Meridional Mode
AMM Atlantic Multidecadal Mode
AMO [WWW]Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (weather pattern). See also [WWW]Sea Surface Temperature Changes
AMOC [WWW]Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation
AMS [WWW]Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
AMS [WWW]American Meteorological Society
AMSR [WWW]Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer
AMSR-E [WWW]Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer –E See also [WWW]The First AMSR-E 89 GHz Sea Ice Images, Sept 2002
AMSU [WWW]Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit
AMU [WWW]Atomic Mass Unit
AO [WWW]Arctic Oscillation
AOD Aerosol [WWW]Optical Depth
AOGCM Atmospheric/Ocean General Circulation Model
AOOS Acronyms [WWW]Alaska Ocean Observing System Acronyms
AOT [WWW]Aerosol Optical Thickness
Ap [WWW]Average Planetary Index (Geomagnetic activity index)
AP [WWW]Antarctic Peninsula
APA [WWW]Administrative Procedure Act (U.S.)
APIS [WWW]Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet
AR [WWW]Auto-Regression
AR1 [WWW]First Order Auto-Regression A first-order [WWW]Markov process also known as “The damped [WWW]random walk
AR(1) an [WWW]Autoregressive moving average model
AR4 [WWW]Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC)
ARCUS | Arctic Links [WWW]Arctic Research Consortium of the United States | Arctic Links
ARF Aerosol Radiative Forcing
ARGO [WWW]Argo, part of the integrated global observation strategy (Oceanography)
ARIMA [WWW]Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model or process
ARM [WWW]Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, a US-DOE remote sensing program
ARM Acronyms/Glossary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement [WWW]Acronyms / [WWW]Glossary
ARMA [WWW]Autoregressive Moving Average model or process
arXiv [WWW]Open access archive Cornell University Library
ASA [WWW]American Statistical Association
ASOS [WWW]Automated Surface Observing System
ATIC [WWW]Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter
ATL Atlantic
ATL Atlantic Tropical Latitude
Atm Atmosphere, atmospheric
AU [WWW]Astronomical Unit (average distance of the Earth from the Sun)
AVHRR [WWW]Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
AVO [WWW]Alaska Volcano Observatory
AWS [WWW]Automatic Weather Station


BADC [WWW]British Atmospheric Data Centre
BADC Acronyms [WWW]British Atmospheric Data Centre Acronyms
BAHC [WWW]Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle
BAMS [WWW]Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
BAS [WWW]British Antarctic Survey
BATS [WWW]Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (Oceanography)
BAU "Business-as-Usual", IPCC scenario
BB [WWW]Black-body radiation
BB Bulletin Board, (aka CA Forum [WWW]Message board)
BBSO [WWW]Big Bear Solar Observatory
BC [WWW]Black Carbon (climate forcing)
BCP [WWW]Bristlecone Pine
BCs [WWW]Boundary Conditions
BDE Boolean Delay Equations
BE Baroclinically-enhanced (cyclones) see [WWW]Genetic Hurricane Classification
BEBC [WWW]Big European Bubble Chamber
BEST [WWW]Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature
BEST [WWW]Bivariate ENSO Time Series
BG [WWW]Beaufort Gyre ,a wind driven ocean current located in the Arctic Ocean
Bi [WWW]Virial coefficient. See also [WWW]The Virial Theorem
BIC [WWW]Bayesian Information Criterion
Bin-And-Pin Dividing data into bins, and then pinning the endpoints when averaging
BIPM [WWW]Bureau International des Poids et Mesures
BL [WWW]Boundary Layer
BLUE [WWW]Best Linear Unbiased Estimation
BNL [WWW]Brookhaven National Laboratory
BOA Bottom of the Atmosphere (i.e. the planetary surface)
BOFH [WWW]Bastard Operator From Hell (Internet Slang)
BOM [WWW]Bureau of Meteorology (Australian Government)
BOM Glossary [WWW]Bureau of Meteorology Climate Glossary
BP [WWW]Before Present (i.e. before 1950 AD)
BS09 Benestad, R. E., and G. A. Schmidt (2009), Solar trends and global warming,[WWW]J. Geophys. Res., 114, D14101, doi:10.1029/2008JD011639
BSRN [WWW]Baseline Surface Radiation Network
BT [WWW]Brightness Temperature
BTW [WWW]by the way


14C, 13C, 12C [WWW]Isotopes of Carbon
C [WWW]Celcius temperature scale
CA [WWW]Climate Audit website
CAKN [WWW]Central Alaska Network (National Park Service, Inventory & Monitoring Program)
CALIPSO [WWW]Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations, [WWW]CNES & [WWW]NASA Joint Project
CAM [WWW]Common Anomalies Method
CAPE [WWW]Convective Available Potential Energy
CAR Caribbean SST Index
CAS Climate Analysis System
CC Carbon Credit
CC [WWW]Climate Change
CCA [WWW]Canonical Correlation Analysis
CCD [WWW]Carbonate Compensation Depth (Oceanography)
CCD [WWW]Charge-Coupled Device (Astronomy)
CCE classical calibration estimation
CCF [WWW]Cross-Correlation Function
CCN [WWW]Cloud Condensation Nuclei
[WWW]CCSL [WWW]Cirrocumulus Standing Lenticular
CCSD [WWW]Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems
CCSP [WWW]Climate Change Science Program
CCW Counter-Clockwise
CD [WWW]Carbon Dioxide
CDIAC [WWW]Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
CDS Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (SOHO)
CDW Circumpolar Deep Water
CE [WWW]Coefficient of Efficiency (Hydrology)
CE Coefficient of Error (Geostatistics). Reference Matheron (1971) The Theory of Regionalized Variables and its Applications, [WWW]Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris
CEI Climate Extremes Index
CEP [WWW]Celestial Ephemeris Pole
CEPEX [WWW]Central Equatorial Pacific EXperiment, NCAR/EOL
CERN [WWW]Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire
CET [WWW]Central England Temperature
CFC [WWW]chlorofluorocarbons, e.g., CClF3
CFD [WWW]Computational Fluid Dynamics
CFR Climate Field Reconstruction. See [WWW]Comparison of climate field reconstruction techniques: application to Europe Riedwyl et al., 2008
CFS [WWW]Climate Forecast System
CGCM Coupled [WWW]General Circulation Model
CH4 [WWW]Methane
CHAMMP [WWW]Climate Change Prediction Program
CHIPS Coupled Hurricane Intensity Prediction System
CHL Cold [WWW]Halocline Layer. See also CHL in [WWW]The SCICEX Program
CI, 95%CI [WWW]Confidence Interval, 95% Confidence Interval
CI [WWW]Covington Index F10.7 (Solar Activity Index)
CINE [WWW]Convection Inhibition Energy
CIRES [WWW]Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, Colorado
CL [WWW]Confidence Level (Statistics)
CLAMP [WWW]Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program
CliC [WWW]The Climate and Cryosphere Project
CLIMAX [WWW]Cosmic-Radiation Neutron Intensity Monitor in Climax, Colorado, USA
CLIVAR [WWW]Climate Variability and Predictability, a WCRP program
CLIWOC [WWW]Climatological database for the world's oceans (1750-1850)
CLT [WWW]Central Limit Theorem
CMAP [WWW]Climate Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction study
CME [WWW]Coronal Mass Ejection (solar phenomenon)
CMIP [WWW]Coupled Model Intercomparison Project
CMOS [WWW]Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society
CN Condensation Nuclei
CO [WWW]Carbon Monoxide ( Poison)
CO2 Carbon Dioxide Also See Green House Gases
COADS [WWW]Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set
CONICET [WWW]Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas National Scientific and Technical Research Council, Argentina
CONUS CONterminus United States
CoP [WWW]Climate of the Past
CORDIS [WWW]Community Research and Development Information Service, Activities of the European Union - Research and Innovation
CORRAL [WWW]Colonial Registers and Royal Navy Logbooks
COT Cloud Optical Thickness
CP Cloud top pressure
CPA [WWW]Change-Point Analysis (Statistics)
CPC [WWW]Climate Prediction Center National Weather Service, NOAA, (US)
CPS Composite-Plus-Scale, a method of [WWW]Multivariate Calibration
CPSST Cross Product Sea Surface Temperature
CR [WWW]Cosmic ray(s) See also Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory [WWW]Cosmic Rays
CRE Cloud Radiative Effect
CRF Cloud Radiative Forcing
CRF Cosmic Ray Flux
CRII Cosmic Ray Induced Ionisation
CRN [WWW]Climate Reference Network (USA)
CRS Cosmic Ray Station. See the [WWW]Oulu Cosmic Ray Station of the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, Finland.
CRS Cotton Region Shelter aka [WWW]Stevenson screen
CRU [WWW]Climatic Research Unit attached to the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK (Director: Professor Phil Jones)
CRUTEM Land Temperature Record from CRU
CS Climate Science, also Climate Sensitivity
CSIRO [WWW]Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia)
CSM NCAR GCM, includes CSM2 and CSM3
CT Cloud top temperature
CTD [WWW]Conductivity, Temperature, Depth sensors (Oceanography)
CTIO [WWW]Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory
CUP Computational Uncertainty Principle
CVM Composite plus Variance Method (for analyzing proxies)
CVM Composite plus Variance Matching
CWP Current Warm Period
CYA [WWW]Cover Your Ass


4D-Var [WWW]Four dimensional Variational data assimilation
delta Net change in a value
δ18O [WWW]delta-O-18 A measure of the ratio of stable oxygen isotopes 18O:16O
D10 Dessler 2010 : A Determination of the Cloud Feedback from Climate Variations over the Past Decade [WWW]PDF
D11 Dessler 2011 : Cloud variations and the Earth’s energy budget [WWW]PDF
DA [WWW]Dipole Anomaly (Arctic weather pattern)
DACP [WWW]Dark Ages Cold Period
DADS Data Archive and Distribution System
DALR [WWW]Dry-adiabatic lapse rate
DCH Diffusive Column Height or Firn Thickness (Glaciology)
DEAD [WWW]Dust Entrainment And Deposition
DECR [WWW]Drought Exceptional Circumstances Report 2008, CSIRO, BOM, Australian Government
DEFRA [WWW]Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK
DEM [WWW]Digital Elevation Model
DF [WWW]Diffuse Fraction (Clouds)
DFA [WWW]Detrended Fluctuation Analysis
DIC [WWW]Dissolved Inorganic Carbon
DIFF(Y) [WWW]The first difference of time series Y
DJF December, January, February (winter)
DLF Downward Longwave Flux see [WWW]Pyrgeometer
DLW Downwelling Long Wave radiation
DMS [WWW]DiMethyl Sulfide, a precursor of various atmospheric sulfur compounds
DMSP [WWW]Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
DMSP [WWW]DiMethylSulfonioPropionate
DNF [WWW]Did Not Finish
DNS [WWW]Direct Numerical Simulation
DNS [WWW]Domain Name System
DNV [WWW]Det Norske Veritas
dO18, O18 Change in oxygen-18 isotope level
D/O [WWW]Dansgaard-Oeschger event
DOE [WWW]Department of Energy (US)
DQA [WWW]Data Quality Act (US)
DSV Decadal Scale Variability
DTR Diurnal Temperature Range
DU [WWW]Dobson unit, (measurement of atmospheric ozone)
DVI [WWW]Dust Veil Index
DW [WWW]Durbin-Watson statistic
DWD [WWW]Deutscher Wetterdienst (German Meteorological Service)
DWPT [WWW](Inverse) Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform. See [WWW]Basic wavelet routines for one-, two- and three-dimensional signal processing
DYNAMO [WWW]Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation


E&E [WWW]Energy and Environment
EACC [WWW]Eastern Alpine Conifer Chronology (Dendrochronology)
EAIS East Antarctic Ice Sheet
EAS [WWW]School of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences at Georgia Tech
EBM Energy Balance Model
EBTC Energy Balance ThermoCouple
EBW Equivalent bandwidth
ECCO2 [WWW]Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II : Perpetual Ocean Video (Ocean Circulation Model Data)
ECMWF [WWW]European Centre for Midrange Weather Forecast Model
ECR [WWW]Equilibrium Climate Response
ECS [WWW]Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity
EDF Equivalent [WWW]degrees of freedom
EE [WWW]Energy and Environment (Journal)
EE [WWW]Equatorial Easterlies (Meteorology)
EEP Eastern Equatorial Pacific
EFP [WWW]Empirical Fluctuation Processes (Econometrics) See [WWW]strucchange.pdf: Testing for Structural Change in Linear Regression Relationships
EGHE Enhanced [WWW]GreenHouse Effect
EIA [WWW]Equatorial Ionization Anomaly
EIR [WWW]Environmental Information Regulations UK
EIT Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SOHO)
EIV [WWW]Error-in-Variables
ELR [WWW]Environmental lapse rate
ELSA [WWW]Eifel Laminated Sediment Archive
EM [WWW]Expectation Maximization, see also Regularized expectation maximization algorithm
EMD [WWW]Empirical Mode Decomposition, a signal-processing technique
EMIC Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity
ENA [WWW]Energetic Neutral Atom
ENSO [WWW]El Nino - Southern Oscillation. See also [WWW]El Niño
EOF Empirical Orthogonal Factor
EOF [WWW]Empirical Orthogonal Function
EOP [WWW]Earth Orientation Parameters
Eos [WWW]Eos - Transactions of the American Geophysical Union
EOS [WWW]Earth Observation Satellite JAXA
EOSDIS [WWW]Earth Observing System Data and Information System
EPA [WWW]Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.)
EPAC Eastern Pacific
EPICA [WWW]European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica
ERBE [WWW]Earth Radiation Budget Experiment
ERSST Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature
ESA Annex 4 [WWW]European Space Agency: Acronyms
ESE [WWW]Earth Science Enterprise (NASA)
ESRL [WWW]Earth System Research Laboratory
ET [WWW]EvapoTranspiration
ETA Equatorial Temperature Anomaly
EULA [WWW]End User Licence Agreement
eV [WWW]Electron volt
EWMA [WWW]Exponentially Weighted Moving Average


F [WWW]Fahrenheit temperature scale
FACE [WWW]Free Air Concentration Enrichment
FAR [WWW]First Assessment Report IPCC 1990
FAR Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC)
FARIMA Fractional AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average process. See [WWW]ARIMA
FARS [WWW]Federal Acquisition Regulations System USA
FASCODE FAST Atmospheric Signature CODE
FASE [WWW]FASCODE for the Environment
FD [WWW]Forbush Decrease (Galactic Cosmic Radiation)
FDM [WWW]First Differences Method
FEI Full Equinox Interval: September 16th thru 26th
FFP [WWW]Fit For Purpose
FFT [WWW]Fast Fourier Transform
FGN [WWW]Fractional Gaussian Noise, also known as brown (red) noise, fractional [WWW]ARIMA process (FARIMA) or self-similar process (Statistics)
FIR [WWW]Finite-duration Impulse Response filter
FKTE First-kind thermal engine. See p433 in Sidorenkov, N. S. (2005) [WWW]Physics of the Earth's rotation instabilities, Astronomical & Astrophysical Transactions, 24:5, 425 - 439
FLIR [WWW]Forward Looking InfraRed
FMEA [WWW]Failure mode and effects analysis
FOI, FOIA [WWW]Freedom Of Information Act
FOS [WWW]Friends of Science
FTE [WWW]Flux Transfer Event
FTE [WWW]Full-time_equivalent
FTIR [WWW]Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy
FTS [WWW]Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
FUD [WWW]Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt
FUV Far Ultraviolet see [WWW]Ultraviolet
FWIW [WWW]for what it’s worth


GAIM [WWW]Global Analysis, Integration and Modelling
GAO [WWW]Government Accountability Office (U.S.)
GAST [WWW]Global Average Surface Temperature
GAT Global Air Temperature
GAW [WWW]Global Atmosphere Watch
GCC [WWW]Global Carbon Cycle
GCM General Circulation Model (sometimes said to be [WWW]Global Climate Model)
GCM Global Circulation Model
GCOS [WWW]Global Climate Observing System
GCR [WWW]Galactic Cosmic Ray
GCR Galactic Cosmic Radiation
GCRI Greenhouse Climate Response Index (U.S.)
GCTE [WWW]Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems
GDAS Global Data Assimilation System
GDD [WWW]Growing Degree Day (agriculture)
GEC Global Electric Circuit. See [WWW]Cosmic Rays and Earth's Atmospheric Processes : A review D Siingh 2008
GEISA [WWW]Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques', Management and Study of Atmospheric Spectroscopic Information
GEM [WWW]Global Environmental Multiscale Model
GEO Acronyms [WWW]Group for Earth Observation Acronyms
GEV [WWW]Generalized Extreme Value distribution
GEWEX [WWW]Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment of the WCRP
GFD Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
GFDL [WWW]Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
GFS [WWW]Global Forecast System model
GGS [WWW]Global Geospace Science Program
GGWS, TGGWS [WWW]The Great Global Warming Swindle (UK Channel4 TV documentary)
GHCN Global Historical Climate Network
GHCN [WWW]Global Historical Climatology Network
GHE [WWW]Greenhouse effect
GHG Green House Gases
GIA [WWW]Glacial Isostatic Adjustment
GIGO [WWW]Garbage In, Garbage Out
GIOMAS [WWW]Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System
GIS [WWW]Geographic Information System
GISP [WWW]Greenland Ice Sheet Project
GISP2 [WWW]Greenland Ice Sheet Project #2
GISS [WWW]Goddard Institute for Space Studies, also their temperature dataset
GISSE One of the GISS GCMs, which include E, F20, F23, M20, etc.
GISTEMP [WWW]GISS Surface Temperature Analysis
GLE Global Lyapunov Exponent
GLODAP [WWW]Global Ocean Data Analysis Project
GLRIP [WWW]Global Lake and River Ice Phenology database
GMST Global Mean Surface Temperature see [WWW]Climate sensitivity
[WWW]GMST [WWW]Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time
GMTA [WWW]Global Mean Temperature Anomaly
GOCE [WWW]Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer
GOES [WWW]Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
GOFC Global Ocean Freshwater Content
GOHC Global Ocean Heat Content
GOIs Global Ocean Indicators
GOM [WWW]Glossary of Meteorology
GOM [WWW]Gulf of Mexico
GONG [WWW]Global Oscillation Network Group
GOSTA [WWW]Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas
GPCP [WWW]Global Precipitation Climatology Project
GPP Global [WWW]Primary Production, total uptake of carbon by plant leaves
GPS [WWW]Global Positioning System
GPS-RO Global Positioning System - Radio Occultation. See UCAR [WWW]Climate Applications Workshop March 2008, Boulder CO, USA
GRACE [WWW]Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (Gravimetry)
GRAS [WWW]GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding
GRASP [WWW]Geodetic Reference Antenna in SPace (Geodesy)
GRIP [WWW]Greenland Ice Core Project
GRL [WWW]Geophysical Research Letters (journal)
GRUAN GCOS Reference Upper Air Network, hosted by [WWW]DWD
GSDM [WWW]Global Synoptic-Dynamic Model
GSN GCOS Surface Network
GSN Group [WWW]Sunspot Number, see also SSN
GSR Gram-Schmidt Reorthogonalization
GSSL Global Steric Sea Level
Gt Giga-tonne, 109 tonnes
GT [WWW]Georgia Institute of Technology
GTE Global Thermodynamic Equilibrium, see [WWW]Thermodynamic Equilibrium
GTTA [WWW]Global Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies
GUT [WWW]Grand Unification Theory
GW [WWW]Global Warming
Gw Giga-watt (109 watts)
GWD Gravity Wave Drag
GWO [WWW]Global Wind Oscillation
GWP [WWW]Global Warming Potential


H [WWW]Hurst Exponent
HAARP [WWW]High frequency Active Auroral Research Program
HadCRUT Combined land sea temperature database from the CRU
HadISST Ice coverage and SST database from CRU
HadSST Sea temperature database from the CRU
HALOE [WWW]Halogen Occultation Experiment
HAO [WWW]High Altitude Observatory at Mauna Loa, ESSL, NCAR
HAPEX [WWW]Hydrology-Atmosphere Pilot EXperiment in the Sahel, 1990-1992
HCFC [WWW]Hydrochlorofluorocarbon, E.G., CHClF2
HCO [WWW]Holocene Climatic Optimum
HCS [WWW]Heliospheric Current Sheet
HHI Hurricane Hazard Index see [WWW]Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
HII [WWW]Hurricane Intensity Index
HITRAN [WWW]HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption database, a compilation of spectroscopic parameters
HMF [WWW]Heliospheric Magnetic Field
HNLC [WWW]High Nitrate and Low Chlorophyll
Hockey Team Mann, Bradley, Hughes, Esper, Briffa, Schmidt, Thompson, those who support the Hockeystick
HOT [WWW]Hawaii Ocean Time-series (Oceanography)
hPa hecto Pascals (pressure measurement)
H-P filter [WWW]Hodrick-Prescott filter
HRIR [WWW]High-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (Nimbus II Satellite Instrument)
HS Hockeystick, see MBH98
HSI Hurricane Surge Index
h/t [WWW]hat tip
HTM Holocene Thermal Maximum see [WWW]Holocene Climatic Optimum
[WWW]HURDAT NOAA Atlantic Basin [WWW]HURricane DATabase
HWRF [WWW]Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting model


IAAFT [WWW]Iterative Amplitude Adjusted Fourier Transform
IAC [WWW]Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
IACGEC Inter-Agency Committee on Global Environment Change. See "The UK National Strategy of Global Environmental Research" (1996) ISBN #1-85531- 1658
IANAL [WWW]I Am Not A Lawyer
IANAS I am not a statistician
IANIGLA [WWW]Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales Argentine Institute of Nivology, Glaciology and Environmental Sciences, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnológicas (CRICYT), Mendoza, Argentina
IB Inverted Barometer (sea level)
IBEX [WWW]Interstellar Boundary Explorer
ICCC 2009 [WWW]The 2009 International Conference on Climate Change
ICE inverse calibration estimation
ICE Inverse Calibration Estimator
ICOADS [WWW]International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set
ICs [WWW]Initial Conditions
IDF [WWW]Intensity-Duration-Frequency (precipitation). See also [WWW]Ombrian curves in a maximum entropy framework
Időjárás [WWW]Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service
IDV [WWW]InterDiurnal Variability (Geomagnetic Index)
IEEE [WWW]Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IFN Ice-Forming Nuclei; See Professor Brian A. Tinsley [WWW]Research Interests
IGBP [WWW]International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
IGD [WWW]Ice age - Gas age Difference (delta Age), see also [WWW]Firn Air Age
IGL [WWW]Ideal Gas Law
IGM [WWW]Idealized Greenhouse Model
IGY [WWW]International Geophysical Year (1st July 1957 thru 31st December 1958)
IHTE Inter-hemisphere thermal engine. See p433 in Sidorenkov, N. S. (2005) [WWW]Physics of the Earth's rotation instabilities, Astronomical & Astrophysical Transactions, 24:5, 425 - 439
IID [WWW]Independent and Identically Distributed random variables
IIF International Institute of Forecasters [WWW]Forecasting Principles
IIN [WWW]Ion-Induced Nucleation
IIR [WWW]Infinite Impulse Response filter
IIRC [WWW]If I recall correctly
IJoC International Journal of Climatology, see Publications [WWW]Royal Meteorological Society, UK
IKE [WWW]Integrated Kinetic Energy (Tropical cyclone destructive potential)
IKI [WWW]InterKosmos (International)
IMF [WWW]Interplanetary Magnetic Field
IMHO [WWW]In My Humble Opinion
IMO [WWW]In My Opinion
IN [WWW]Ice Nucleus
INPE [WWW]Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais National Institute for Space Research, Brazil
INQUA [WWW]International Union for Quaternary Research
InSAR [WWW]Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar
INVR Inverse Regression (reconstruction method)
IO [WWW]Indian Ocean
IOC [WWW]Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IOD [WWW]Indian Ocean Dipole
IOOC [WWW]Integrated Ocean Observing System
IOP [WWW]Institute of Physics
IOS [WWW]International Organization for Standardization
IOW [WWW]In Other Words
IP [WWW]Internet Protocol see also [WWW]IP address
IPCC [WWW]Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPM [WWW]InterPlanetary Medium
IPO [WWW]Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation
IPR [WWW]Intellectual property rights
IPV [WWW]Isentropic Potential Vorticity (Meteorology)
IR [WWW]Infrared (radiation)
IRD Ice-Rafted Debris see [WWW]Heinrich event
ISCCP [WWW]International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project
ISES [WWW]International Solar Energy Society
ISI [WWW]Institute for Scientific Information
ISM Indian Summer [WWW]Monsoon
ISN [WWW]International Sunspot Number
ISO [WWW]Intraseasonal Oscillations
ISTP [WWW]International Solar Terrestrial Physics Initiative
ITCZ [WWW]Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
ITD [WWW]InterTropical Discontinuity
ITRDB [WWW]International Tree Ring Data Bank
IWV Integrated Water Vapour


Jager [WWW]Prof. dr. C de Jager [WWW]Dutch Astronomer
JAS July, August, September
Jason [WWW]Radar sea level measuring satellite
J Clim [WWW]Journal of Climate
JJA June, July, August (summer)
Jones Phil Jones of CRU
JORC [WWW]Joint Ore Reserves Committee, Minerals Council of Australia, Australian Institute of Mining & Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geosciences
JPL [WWW]Jet Propulsion Laboratory (US)
JRA-25 [WWW]Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis
Jz Electrical Current density [WWW](J) in the vertical [WWW](z-axis) direction


K [WWW]Kelvin SI unit increment of temperature
K, Kp [WWW]K-index (Geomagnetic activity index)
K/T [WWW]Kiehl/Trenberth global energy balance model
Ka Kilo annum (1,000 years)
Kabp Kilo annum [WWW]before present (i.e. before 1950 AD)
KISS Keep It Simple, Stupid; See [WWW]the KISS principle
KNMI [WWW]Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute)
KOE [WWW]Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents (5.34MB pdf) Qiu, B. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, USA (see also [WWW]Decadal-Scale Climate and Ecosystem Interactions in the North Pacific Ocean)


LACC Low Altitude Cloud Cover see [WWW]Stratus cloud
LAI [WWW]Leaf Area Index
LANL [WWW]Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico USA
L&P M. J. Penn and W. Livingston, 2006. Temporal Changes in Sunspot Umbral Magnetic Fields and Temperatures, [WWW]The Astrophysical Journal Letters Volume 649, Number 1 L45
LASP [WWW]Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder
LBL [WWW]Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley, California)
LBT [WWW]Ljung-Box Test
LC11 Lindzen and Choi 2011 : On the observational determination of climate sensitivity and its implications [WWW]PDF
LCC [WWW]Land Cover Change
LCL [WWW]Lifted Condensation Level
LDEO [WWW]Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory The Earth Institute at Columbia University, City of New York, USA
LDR Longwave Downwelling Radiation
LEAP [WWW]Late Eemian Aridity Pulse
LEP [WWW]Large Electron-Positron Collider
LEPS [WWW]Limited-area ensemble prediction systems
LES [WWW]Large Eddy Simulation
LFC [WWW]Level of Free Convection
LFD Low-Frequency Density
LFO [WWW]Low-Frequency Oscillation
LFS Local Fitting Software
LFV Low-Frequency Variability
LGI [WWW]Last Glacial Inception
LGM [WWW]Last Glacial Maximum
LHS Left-Hand Side
LI [WWW]Lifted Index
LIA [WWW]Little Ice Age (Maunder Minimum)
LIDAR [WWW]Light Detection and Ranging
LIG Last InterGlaciation [WWW]The Eemian Interglacial
LIMA [WWW]Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (USGS)
LIS [WWW]Laurentide Ice Sheet
LLE Local Lyapunov Exponent
LLGHG Long-lived greenhouse gases, eg CO2, not water vapor
LLL,LLNL [WWW]Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, California)
LLN [WWW]Law of Large Numbers
LMS [WWW]Least Mean Squares
LNB [WWW]Level of Neutral Buoyancy
LOD [WWW]Length of Day See also Long Term Variations in the Length of Day and Climatic Change. [WWW]Lambeck, K & Cazenave, A, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc. (1976) 46, 555-573
ΔLOD [WWW]Delta (changes of the) Length Of Day
LOI [WWW]Loss On Ignition
LOIRP [WWW]Lunar Orbiter Image Recovery Project
LOSU Level Of Scientific Understanding
LOWESS, LOESS (or Lowess, Loess) [WWW]Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing, Local regression (Mathematics)
LQE Linear Quadratic Estimation. See [WWW]Kalman filter
LRD Long-Range Dependence. See [WWW]The Hurst phenomenon and fractional Gaussian noise made easy
LRGIE Local mean Relative Growth of Initial Error
LSC Length of Sunspot Cycle see [WWW]Sunspot
LSO [WWW]Learmonth Solar Observatory
LSP [WWW]Literate Statistical Practice (Statistics)
LST [WWW]Land Surface Temperature
LST Local Solar Time see [WWW]Solar time
LTB [WWW]Lunar Tidal Bulge
LTE [WWW]Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium
LTI [WWW]Linear Time-Invariant system theory
LTP [WWW]Long-Term Persistence See also [WWW]From climate certainties to climate stochastics
LTRR [WWW]Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona
LTS Lower Tropospheric Stability
LUC [WWW]Land-Use Change
LUCC [WWW]Land Use Cover Change
LW,LWR Longwave (infrared) "greenhouse" radiation see [WWW]Outgoing longwave radiation
LWC [WWW]Liquid Water Content


M&M/MM Steve McIntyre and Ross McKitrick
MA [WWW]Moving Average
MAGICC [WWW]Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change
MALR Moist adiabatic lapse rate See [WWW]Saturated adiabatic lapse rate
MAM March, April, May (spring)
Mannomatic Michael Mann's mathematical method used in MBH98
MAT Marine Air Temperature
MAVEN [WWW]Mars Atmosphere and Volatiles EvolutioN
mb, mbar [WWW]millibar (pressure)
MBH98 The Mann, Bradley & Hughes (1998) Hockeystick study
MBL [WWW]Mean Beam Length (Radiation)
MC [WWW]Monte Carlo method
MCA [WWW]Maximum Covariance Analysis
MCDW [WWW]Monthly Climate Data of the World, WMO
MCS [WWW]Mesoscale Convective System (Meteorology)
MCSST Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature
MDI Michelson Doppler Imager (SOHO)
MDL [WWW]Minimum Description Length
MDR Main Development Region (hurricanes)
MDV [WWW]Multi Decadal Variability in the Arctic and North Atlantic climate system
ME [WWW]Maximum Entropy See also [WWW]The scaling properties in the distribution of hydrological variables as a result of the maximum entropy principle
MEI [WWW]Multivariate ENSO Index
MEM [WWW]Maximum Entropy Spectral Method (Mathematics)
MEP [WWW]Maximum Entropy Production (Thermodynamics)
Meridional [WWW]Longitudinal Direction (north-south)
MESA Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (Sun-Spot Cycles)
METAR [WWW]MÉTéorologique Aviation Régulière (Aviation routine weather report)
MFP [WWW]Mean free path
Mg/Ca Magnesium/Calcium seashell proxy record
[WWW]MGSTAR [WWW]Mean Global Surface Temperature Anomaly Record
MGT Mean Global Temperature
MHD [WWW]Magnetohydrodynamics
MIKE 21 [WWW]MIKE 21 is a modeling system for 2D free-surface flows that can be applied in lakes, estuaries, bays, coastal areas, and seas where stratification can be neglected.
MIPT [WWW]Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
MIS [WWW]Marine Isotope Stage (Paleoclimate)
MISR [WWW]Multi-angle Imaging Spectro Radiometer (Instrument carried aboard the NASA [WWW]Terra satellite)
MJO [WWW]Madden-Julian Oscillation
MLE [WWW]Maximum Likelihood Estimation
MLO [WWW]Mauna Loa Observatory, CO2 measuring station
MLSO [WWW]Mauna Loa Solar Observatory
MM [WWW]Maunder Minimum
MM2005 (EE) McIntyre, S., and R. McKitrick (2005), The M&M Critique of the MBH98 Northern Hemisphere Climate Index: Update and Implications, Energy and Environment, Volume 16 Number 1 pp69-100. [WWW]PDF
MM2005 (GRL) McIntyre, S., and R. McKitrick (2005), Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03710, doi:10.1029/2004GL021750 [WWW]PDF
MMSE [WWW]Minimum Mean Square Error
MMTS [WWW]Maximum-Minimum Temperature System (Meteorology)
M.O. [WWW]Modus operandi
MOC Meridional Overturning Circulation see [WWW]Thermohaline circulation
MODIS [WWW]Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (satellite instrument)
MODTRAN [WWW]MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission computer program
MODWT Maximum Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transforms. See [WWW](Inverse) Discrete Wavelet Packet Transforms
MOE [WWW]Margin of Error
MOHSST6 Met Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature (UK)
MOMMDB Meteorological Office Main Marine Data Bank. See Correction of Instrumental Biases in Historical Sea Surface Temperature Data
MOS [WWW]Model Output Statistics
MPA Mobile Polar Anticyclone. A dry cold polar air mass, typically formed in winter, that advects from its high latitude source location to lower latitudes. See [WWW]air mass.
MPH [WWW]Mobile Polar High (see also MPA)
MPT [WWW]Mid-Pleistocene Transition
MRC [WWW]Minimum Roughness Criteria
MRIR [WWW]Medium-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (Nimbus II Satellite Instrument)
MS [WWW]Mass Spectrometry
MSD Mean Square Differences
MSE [WWW]Mean Squared Error
MSI Multi-Spectral Imagery
MSIS Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter see [WWW]NRLMSISE-00
MSL [WWW]Mean Sea Level
MSLP [WWW]Mean Sea-Level Pressure
MSM Mainstream Media see [WWW]Mass Media
MSSA [WWW]Multi-channel Singular Spectrum Analysis
MSU [WWW]Microwave Sounding Unit (satellite instrument for temperature measurement)
MTM Midnight Temperature Maximum
MTM [WWW]MultiTaper Method
MWO [WWW]Mount Wilson Observatory
MWP [WWW]Medieval Warm Period
MXD [WWW]Maximum Latewood Density (See also [WWW]tree-ring basics)


N2O [WWW]Nitrous Oxide
NADW [WWW]North Atlantic Deep Water
NAM [WWW]Northern Annular Mode
NaN [WWW]Not a Number
NAO [WWW]North Atlantic Oscillation See also [WWW]The North Atlantic Oscillation, Universite catholique de Louvain
NARR North American Regional Reanalysis
NAS [WWW]National Academy of Sciences (US)
NASA [WWW]National Aeronautic and Space Agency
NAT Nitric Acid Trihydrate see [WWW]Nitric acid
NATL North Atlantic
NATL North Atlantic Tropical Latitude
NCAR [WWW]National Center for Atmospheric Research
NCDC [WWW]National Climatic Data Center
NCEP [WWW]National Centers for Environmental Prediction (US)
NDIR [WWW]Non Dispersive InfraRed
NDP-039 [WWW]Two Long-Term Instrumental Climatic Data Bases of the People's Republic of China Tao Shiyan, Fu Congbin, Zeng Zhaomei & Zhang Qingyun (1991) Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
NDVI [WWW]Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (Remote sensing)
Neff [WWW]effective Number of data points & [WWW]effective Number of independent observations See also [WWW]Quenouille jackknife method
NERC [WWW]Natural Environment Research Council (UK)
NESIS [WWW]The Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale
NF3 [WWW]Nitrogen trifluoride (industrial gas)
NGDC [WWW]National Geophysical Data Center
NGO [WWW]Non-Governmental Organization
NGRIP [WWW]North Greenland Ice Core Project
NH [WWW]Northern Hemisphere
NHC [WWW]National Hurricane Center
NIH [WWW]Not Invented Here
NINO3.4 [WWW]El Niño 3.4 Index (scroll to bottom of page)
NIO North Indian Ocean
NIR Near Infra-red (radiation)
NLC [WWW]NoctiLucent Cloud (Meteorology)
NLLE Nonlinear Local Lyapunov Exponent
NLSST Non-Linear SST
NM [WWW]Neutron Monitor
NMAT [WWW]Nighttime Marine Air Temperature
NMS National Meteorological Service
NO [WWW]Nitric Oxide
NOAA [WWW]National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NOAMER [WWW]North America
NOI [WWW]Northern Oscillation Index
NOMADS National Operational Model Archive & Distribution System
NOx Nitric Oxide (x means the number of oxygens varies: 1,2,2.5)
NP North Pacific Pattern Index
NPGO [WWW]North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (Climate)
NPO North Pacific Oscillation
NPP [WWW]Net Primary Production
NPV Northern [WWW]Polar Vortex
NSDL [WWW]National Science Digital Library
NSE [WWW]Navier-Stokes Equations
NSF [WWW]National Science Foundation (US)
NSIDC [WWW]National Snow and Ice Data Center
NSIPP [WWW]NASA Seasonal-Interannual Prediction Project
NSO [WWW]National Solar Observatory
NSTC [WWW]National Science and Technology Council
NTA North Tropical Atlantic Index
NVAP [WWW]NASA Water Vapor Project
NWF Numerical Weather Forecast
NWP [WWW]NorthWest Passage
NWP [WWW]Numerical Weather Prediction
NWS [WWW]National Weather Service


O2 [WWW]Oxygen Gas
O3 [WWW]Ozone Gas
OBP [WWW]Ocean Bottom Pressure
OC [WWW]Organic Carbon
OCMIP Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project
OCO [WWW]Orbiting Carbon Observatory
OD [WWW]Optical Depth
ODE [WWW]Ordinary Differential Equation
ODP [WWW]Ocean Drilling Program
Ofcom [WWW]Office of Communications U.K. Communications Industry Regulator
OGCM Oceanic General Circulation Model
OH [WWW]Hydroxyl radicals
OHC [WWW]Ocean Heat Content (Climate)
OHCA [WWW]Ocean Heat Content Anomaly
OI [WWW]Optimal Interpolation
OLR [WWW]Outgoing Longwave Radiation (pdf)
OLS [WWW]Ordinary least squares
OM Organic Matter (diesel pollution component)
OMB [WWW]Office of Management and Budget [WWW]Final Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review 16Dec2004
OMI [WWW]Ozone Monitoring Instrument
OMR [WWW]Observation Minus Reanalysis
ONI [WWW]Oceanic Nino Index (for the Pacific region 5N-5S:120W-170W)
OPAC Optical Properties of Aerosol and Cloud
ORNL [WWW]Oak Ridge National Laboratory
OSTM/Jason-2 [WWW]Ocean Surface Topography Mission (Remote Sensing)
OT [WWW]Off-Topic
OTOH [WWW]On the other hand


ρ [WWW]Correlation coefficient (Statistics)
PAGES [WWW]Past Global Changes
PaleoMap [WWW]PaleoMap Project, Arlington, Texas, USA
PAR [WWW]Photosynthetically Active Radiation (Oceanography)
PBL [WWW]Planetary Boundary Layer
PC [WWW]Principal Component
PCA Principal Component Analysis
PCMDI [WWW]Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison at LLNL
pCO2 pCO2 is the [WWW]Partial Pressure of CO2 in a gas or liquid, and its units are pressure units, eg mm Hg.
PCR Pacific Cyclogenesis Region (cyclones)
PCs [WWW]Principal Components
PDB Pee Dee Belemnite. (13C/12C) PDB is the carbon isotope ratio of the International Standard of [WWW]Belemnite Fossil from the Cretaceous age Pee Dee Formation in South Carolina. This is the standard isotopic composition against which all other carbon isotope compositions are compared.
PDE [WWW]Partial Differential Equation
PDF [WWW]Probability Distribution Function
PDI [WWW]Palmer Drought Index (Moisture)
PDI Power Dissipation Index (cyclones) : analogous to [WWW]ACE
PDO [WWW]Pacific Decadal Oscillation
PDV [WWW]Pacific Decadal Variability
PE [WWW]Primitive Equations
PEBKAC [WWW]Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair
PET [WWW]Potential EvapoTranspiration
PETM [WWW]Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
PFJ [WWW]Polar Front jet, see ¶4
Pg [WWW]Petagram, 1015 grams, 1 Pg = 1 Gt
PGEs Planetary Geostrophic Equations
PGR [WWW]Post-Glacial Rebound of continents previously covered by ice (sea level)
PID [WWW]Proportional - Integral – Derivative controller (Systems Control)
PIOMAS [WWW]Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System
PIP [WWW]Principal Interaction Pattern
PIPO [WWW]Pinus ponderosae
PIPS [WWW]Polar Ice Prediction System
PIR [WWW]Precision Infrared Radiometer
PLSR [WWW]Partial Least Squares Regression
PMOD [WWW]Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos - World Radiation Center, Switzerland
PNA [WWW]Pacific/North American Teleconnection Index
PNAS [WWW]Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (journal)
POD Period of Data
POES [WWW]Polar Operational Environmental Satellite
POIM [WWW]Parallel Ocean and sea Ice Model
POP [WWW]Parallel Ocean Program (Climate)
POP [WWW]Principal Oscillation Pattern (Oceanography)
POV [WWW]point of view
PPT Powerpoint Presentation
Pr [WWW]Prandtl Number The Prandtl Number is the ratio of kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity
Probability Theory [WWW]Probability Theory As Extended Logic (Washington University in St Louis)
PRT [WWW]Platinum Resistance Thermometer see also [WWW]RTD (Meteorology)
PSC [WWW]Polar Stratospheric Clouds (aka nacreous clouds)
PSD [WWW]Power Spectral Density
PSMSL [WWW]Permanent Service for the Mean Sea Level
PWD Planetary Wave Drag


QA [WWW]Quality Assurance
QBO [WWW]Quasi-Biennial zonal wind Oscillation
QC [WWW]Quality Control
QG Quasi-Geostrophic; see [WWW]Geostrophic wind
QJRMS Quarterly Journal of the [WWW]Royal Meteorological Society
QPF [WWW]Quantitative Precipitation Forecast
QUANGO [WWW]QUasi-Autonomous Non-Governmental Organisation


r [WWW]Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (Statistics)
r2, Squared Correlation r2 [WWW]Coefficient of determination Predictive power of a linear model (varies between zero and one). See also [WWW]Understanding Correlation
R "R" computer language
R [WWW]Réaumur temperature scale
R [WWW]Reflection Coefficient (Optics). See also [WWW]Albedo
RADAR [WWW]RAdio Detection And Ranging
RADIUS [WWW]Rapid particle Analysis of digital Images by Ultra-high-resolution Scanning of thin sections (Particle Analysis Method)]
RAFOS [WWW]Range and Fixing of Sound floats (Oceanography)
RANS [WWW]Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes
RAOBCORE [WWW]RAdiosonde OBservation COrrection using REanalyses
RAWS [WWW]Remote Automated Weather Station
RC [WWW]RealClimate website
RCM Regional [WWW]Climate Model
RCN Reference Climate Network
RCS [WWW]Regional Curve Standardization (PDF) (Dendrochronology: tree ring standardization method). Also see [WWW]
RE Reduction of Error metric. See RE statistical test
READER [WWW]REference Antarctic Data for Environmental Research, British Antarctic Survey
REF [WWW]Relativistic Electron Flux
RegEM Regularized expectation maximization algorithm
RF [WWW]Radiative Forcing
RGIE Relative Growth of the Initial Error
RH [WWW]Relative Humidity
RHS Right-Hand Side
RINO [WWW]Republican In Name Only
RKA [WWW]Russian Federal Space Agency
RLR Revised Local Reference (sea level)
RMM [WWW]Real-time Multivariate MJO (Madden-Julian Oscillation)
RMSE [WWW]Root mean square error (Sqrt[Sum-Of-N ([residuals]2))/N])
RNG [WWW]Random number generator
ROW Rest of World
RPCA Rotated Principal Component Analysis
R/S [WWW]Rescaled Range (Statistics)
RSAM [WWW]Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement (Volcanology)
RSL [WWW]Relative Sea Level (Oceanography)
RSS [WWW]Remote Sensing Systems, Inc. Atmospheric Temperature Data
RST [WWW]Remote Sensing Tutorial, NASA
rsync [WWW]rsync UNIX system file and directory synchronization daemon
RTD [WWW]Resistance Temperature Detector or Resistive Thermal Device
RTFR Read the Friggin' Rules!
RTG [WWW]Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator
RW [WWW]Random Walk
RW Ring Width (tree rings) see [WWW]Dendroclimatology
RWP Roman Warm Period (250-0 BC)


s2 [WWW]Serial Correlation see also [WWW]Autocorrelation
SABER [WWW]Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry, Scientific instrument onboard NASA's TIMED satellite
SAC-D [WWW]Aquarius SAC-D Satellite Mission
SALR [WWW]Saturated adiabatic lapse rate
SAM [WWW]Southern Annular Mode, also called the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO)
SAMW [WWW]SubAntarctic Mode Water
SAP [WWW]Synthesis and Assessment Products
SAR [WWW]Second Assessment Report (IPCC)
SAR [WWW]Synthetic Aperture Radar
SAT [WWW]Surface Air Temperature
SAZ SubAntarctic Zone
SB11 Spencer and Braswell 2011 : On the Misdiagnosis of Climate Feedbacks from Variations in Earth's Radiant Energy Balance [WWW]PDF
S-B σ [WWW]The Stefan-Boltzmann constant of proportionality σ
Sc [WWW]Schmidt Number (Rate of evaporation). The Schmidt number is the ratio of momentum diffusivity to mass diffusivity and represents the relative ease of molecular momentum and mass transfer between phases
SC [WWW]Solar Cycle
SCENGEN A regional climate SCENario GENerator see [WWW]SCENGEN
SCL Solar Cycle Length
SCR [WWW]Solar Cosmic Rays
[WWW]SCSL [WWW]Stratocumulus Standing Lenticular
SD [WWW]Standard Deviation
SDA [WWW]Standard Dry Air
SDO [WWW]Solar Dynamics Observatory
se [WWW]Standard error (statistics)
SEET [WWW]Stove Emissions and Efficiency Testing Laboratory (Pollution Control)
SEM [WWW]Standard Error of the Mean
SEP [WWW]Solar Energetic Particles
SEPP [WWW]Science & Environmental Policy Project
SF6 [WWW]Sulfur Hexafluoride (a very inert dense gas)
SFU [WWW]Solar Flux Unit
SH [WWW]Southern Hemisphere
SH [WWW]Specific Humidity
SHAP Station History Adjustment Program see [WWW]United States Historical Climatology Network
SHIPS [WWW]Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme, National Weather Service, NOAA
SHMA [WWW]Southern Hemisphere Magnetic Anomaly
SI Supplemental Information
SIC [WWW]Schwarz Information Criterion
sigma [WWW]Standard Error
SIM [WWW]Solar Inertial Motion
SIM [WWW]Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SORCE spectrometer)
SIO Southern Indian Ocean
SIRAL [WWW]SAR Interferometric Radar ALtimeter (Satellite Instrument)
SLP [WWW]Sea Level Pressure
SLWC Supercooled Liquid Water Content see [WWW]Supercooling
SMB [WWW]Surface Mass Balance (Icesheet Dynamics)
SMMR [WWW]Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer
SMMR Acronym [WWW]Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer Acronym List
SN [WWW]Sunspot Number see also ISN
SNAO Summer North Atlantic Oscillation Defined as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of observed summertime extratropical North Atlantic pressure at mean sea level
SNHT [WWW]Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (Statistics)
SNR [WWW]Signal to Noise Ratio
SO2 [WWW]Sulfur Dioxide (becomes SO3 in air)
SO3 [WWW]Sulfur Trioxide (becomes Sulfuric Acid in humid air)
SOC [WWW]Self-Organised Criticality
SOCC [WWW]State of the Canadian Cryosphere
SOHO [WWW]Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
SOI [WWW]Southern Oscillation Index
SOI Supplemental Online Information
SOLAS [WWW]Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study
SOLCON [WWW]Solar Constant Observations
SOLSTICE [WWW]SOLar Stellar Irradiance Experiment (SORCE)
SOM [WWW]Soil Organic Matter
SOMOC Southern Ocean Meridional Overturning Circulation see [WWW]Thermohaline circulation
SON September, October, November (Autumn)
SONNE [WWW]SOlar NeutroN Experiment
SOP [WWW]Standard Operating Procedure
SORCE [WWW]SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment
SPAC South Pacific
SPARC [WWW]Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate, another WCRP program
SPC [WWW]Storm Prediction Center
SPCZ [WWW]South Pacific Convergence Zone
SPE [WWW]Solar Proton Events
SPM [WWW]Summary for Policymakers [WWW]IPCC AR4 WG, Friday 2nd February 2007
SPV Southern [WWW]Polar Vortex
SQA Software [WWW]Quality Assurance
SR [WWW]Schumann Resonances
SRES [WWW]Special Report on Emissions Scenarios
SS Sea Salt (climate forcing)
SS [WWW]Statistical Stationarity
SSA [WWW]Singular Spectrum Analysis (Mathematics)
SSE Sum of Squared Errors
SSH [WWW]Sea surface height
SSHS [WWW]Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
SSI Solar Spectral Irradience
SSI Space/Satellite System Integrator
SSMI [WWW]Special Sensor Microwave Imager
SSN [WWW]Wolf or International Standard Sunspot Number. See also GSN
SSS [WWW]Sea Surface Salinity
SST Sea Surface Temperature
SSTA [WWW]Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies
SSTA Solar Storm Threat Analysis [WWW]PDF
SSW [WWW]Sudden Stratospheric Warmings
STJ [WWW]Subtropical jet, see ¶4
STP Short-term Persistence
STP [WWW]Solar Terrestrial Probes
STP [WWW]Standard Temperature and Pressure
STS Sub-Tropical Storms
SUNY [WWW]State University of New York
Sv [WWW]Sverdrup (flow rate = 1 million cubic meters per second)
SVAT Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Scheme
SVD [WWW]Singular Value Decomposition
SVD Singular Vector Decomposition
SW [WWW]Shortwave radiation (solar)
SWAG [WWW]Scientific Wild Ass Guess
SWARM [WWW]SWARM ESA's polar orbiting triple-satellite magnetic field mission
SWPC [WWW]Space Weather Prediction Center
SWSC [WWW]Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate


TAR [WWW]Third Assessment Report (IPCC)
Tau τ [WWW]Optical depth τ
TBH [WWW]to be honest
TBL Time Boundary Layer
TC [WWW]Tropical Cyclone
TCA [WWW]Tropical Cyclone Activity |
TCHP [WWW]Tropical Cyclone Heat Potential
TCR [WWW]Transient climate response, defined at Ref. 5
TDB [WWW]Barycentric Dynamic Time
TED [WWW]Thickness and Enthalpy Distribution Sea-Ice Model
TES [WWW]Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (Satellite Instrument)
TF [WWW]Thermodynamic Forcing
Tg Tera-gram, 1012 grams
TGGWS, GGWS [WWW]The Great Global Warming Swindle (UK Channel4 TV documentary)
TGNES Task Group on New Emission Scenarios, IPCC
THC [WWW]Thermohaline Circulation
THEMIS [WWW]Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms Understanding Space Weather, NASA
TIM [WWW]Total Irradiance Monitor (SORCE instrument)
TIMED [WWW]Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (NASA satellite mission)
TIR Thermal InfraRed. See [WWW]Thermal infrared spectroscopy
TIROS [WWW]Television Infrared Observation Satellite
TLE [WWW]Transient luminous event upper atmosphere electrical phenomena
TLM Tangent Linear Model
TLS [WWW]Total Least Squares
TLT Temperature Lower Troposphere
TMT Temperature Middle Troposphere
TNA Tropical North Atlantic Index
TNI [WWW]Trans-Niño Index
TOA [WWW]Top of the Atmosphere
TOB Time of Observation Bias
TOBS [WWW]Time of Observation Bias Software
TOE [WWW]Theory Of Everything
TOMS [WWW]Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (satellite instrument)
TOPEX [WWW]TOPography EXPeriment [WWW]Radar sea level measuring satellite
[WWW]TOTO [WWW]TOtable Tornado Observatory (Meteorology)
TOVS Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (NASA satellite instrument)
TP [WWW]Thiessen Polygons see also [WWW]Voronoi diagram
TPC [WWW]Time Projection Chamber
TPF-C [WWW]Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (Satellite Instrument)
TRH Threshold Relative Humidity. The relative humidity at which an atmospheric process (e.g. cloud formation) starts to occur.
TRW [WWW]Tree Ring Width (See also [WWW]tree-ring basics)
TSA Tropical South Atlantic Index
TSI [WWW]Total Solar Irradiance
TSSM Total Sum of Squares about the Mean
TSU Technical Support Unit, Working Group 1, IPCC see [WWW]UCAR, Ammann and Wahl and GRL
Tsurf Surface Temperature
TT Tropospheric Temperature. See [WWW]Temperature record
TTFN [WWW]Ta-ta for now (Goodbye)
TTLS [WWW]Truncated Total Least Squares, a [WWW]RegEM regression option. See also[WWW]On the Origin of the Standardization Sensitivity in RegEM Climate Field Reconstructions
Tw Tera-watt (1012 watts)
TWDR Too Wrong, Don’t Read
TWTW [WWW]The Week That Was, Dr. Fred Singer's newsletter


UAH [WWW]University of Alabama Huntsville
UARS [WWW]Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite
UBC Upper Boundary Condition
UCAR [WWW]University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
UCN Ultrafine Condensation Nuclei see [WWW]Particulate
UFA Unidentified Faulty Algorithm
UHI Urban Heat Island
UIUC [WWW]University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Ulysses [WWW]Ulysses probe
UNDP [WWW]United Nations Development Programme
UNEP [WWW]United Nations Environment Programme
UNFCC [WWW]United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Unix [WWW]Uniplexed Operating and Computing System. See also [WWW]Unix example commands
UOP [WWW]UCAR Office of Programs, [WWW]UCAR
USC [WWW]Ultra-SuperCritical
USHCN United States Historical Climate Network
USO [WWW]Udaipur Solar Observatory
[WWW]UT1 [WWW]Universal Time
UTC [WWW]Universal Time Coordinated, time independent of the local time zone
U/Th [WWW]Uranium/Thorium Dating ([WWW]Geochronology)
UTH Upper Tropospheric Humidity
UTLS [WWW]Upper Troposphere - Lower Stratosphere (Atmosphere)
UV [WWW]Ultraviolet (radiation)


V&V [WWW]Verification and Validation (for computer code)
VAG Veille de l’Atmosphère Globale, ([WWW]Global Atmosphere Watch)
VAI [WWW]Vorticity Area Index
VEI [WWW]Volcanic Explosivity Index
VIF [WWW]Variance Inflation Factor (Statistics)
ViRBO [WWW]Virtual Radiation Belt Observatory
VIS [WWW]Visible Imaging System, International Solar-Terrestrial Physics
VKV [WWW]von Karman Vortices
VOC [WWW]Volatile Organic Compound
VSMOW [WWW]Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water


W [WWW]Watt
W/m2, W*m-2 Watts per square meter, a measure of radiation see [WWW]Insolation
WAIS [WWW]West Antarctic Ice Sheet
WCRP [WWW]World Climate Research Programme
WDC [WWW]World Data Center
WDCG World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases
WDCP [WWW]World Data Center for Paleoclimatology
WEP Western Equatorial Pacific
WFT [WWW]Wood For Trees (Climate data analyser)
WG1 [WWW]Working Group 1: The Physical Science Basis of Climate Change, IPCC
WGCM WCRP Working Group on Coupled Models
WGNE [WWW]Working Group on Numerical Experimentation, a joint program of WCRP and WMO-CAS
WGS [WWW]World Geodetic System
WHOI [WWW]Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
WHWP [WWW]Western Hemisphere Warm Pool
WIP [WWW]Work In Progress
WMAP [WWW]Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe
WMO [WWW]World Meteorological Organization
WOCE [WWW]World Ocean Circulation Experiment (Oceanography)
WP Warm Pool
WPAC Western Pacific
WRF [WWW]Weather Research and Forecasting model
WRMC [WWW]World Radiation Monitoring Center
WRP Weather Research Program
WRT [WWW]With Respect To
WSN [WWW]Wolf Sunspot Number
WUWT [WWW]Watts Up With That? The Blog of Anthony Watts of [WWW]Surface Stations fame


XBT [WWW]eXpendable BathyThermograph (Oceanography)
XPS [WWW]XUV Photometer System (SORCE instrument)
XUV [WWW]Extreme UltraViolet


YAG [WWW]Yttrium Aluminium Garnet solid-state laser crystal
YD [WWW]Younger Dryas
YMMV [WWW]Your Mileage May Vary
YTD [WWW]year to date
YVO [WWW]Yellowstone Volcano Observatory


ZEB [WWW]Zero Energy Balance
Zonal [WWW]Latitudinal Direction (west-east)
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